Neuroendocrine systems involvement in sexual development

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The endocrine system is made up of glands that make hormones. Hormones are the body's chemical messengers. They carry information and instructions from one set of cells to another.

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Understanding of the brain mechanisms regulating reproductive behaviors in female laboratory animals has been aided greatly by our knowledge of estrogen receptors in the brain. Hypothalamic neurons that express the gene for estrogen receptor-alpha regulate activity in the neural circuit for the simplest female reproductive response, lordosis behavior. In turn, many of the neurotransmitter inputs to the critical hypothalamic neurons have been studied using electrophysiological and neurochemical techniques.

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Fish and Shellfish Pathology View all 16 Articles. Under a continuous changing environment, animals are challenged with stresses and stimuli which demanding adaptation at behavioral and physiological levels. The adaptation strategies are finely regulated by animal nervous, endocrine, and immune systems.

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Alejandro LomnicziSergio Ojeda. It is now well established that astrocytes are active participants of the process by which information is generated and disseminated within the central nervous system CNS. In the hypothalamus, astrocytes and ependymoglial cells of the median eminence, known as tanycytes, regulate the secretory activity of neuroendocrine neurons.

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It is well established that testosterone from testicular origin plays a critical role in the activation of male sexual behavior in most, if not all, vertebrate species. These effects take place to a large extent in the preoptic area although other brain sites are obviously also implicated. In its target areas, testosterone is actively metabolized either into estrogenic and androgenic steroids that have specific behavioral effects or into inactive metabolites.

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Differentiation of the reproductive system occurs in stages, with early development of the gonads and later differentiation of the brain. The physiological mechanisms that are involved in the sequence of events during sexual differentiation have not been clearly understood. However, recent technological advances have made understanding these mechanisms much more accessible.

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Interactions between the neuroendocrine and immune system play an important role in maintaining and restoring homeostasis. In susceptible individuals a dysfunction of the neuroendocrine system may be one of the risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases. Specific causes of altered neuroendocrine function are still not fully elucidated.

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Archives of Sexual Behavior. Sincewe have found positive estrogen feedback to be a relatively sex-specific reaction of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal system in rats as well as in human beings. It is dependent on the estrogen-convertible androgen level during sexual brain differentiation and also on estrogen priming in adulthood. The lower the estrogen-convertible androgen or primary estrogen level during brain differentiation, the higher the evocability of a positive estrogen action on LH secretion in later life.

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Cells in multicellular animals communicate through signaling mechanisms that take place at direct intercellular contacts, or that involve signals released systemically into the extracellular space where they diffuse over large distances and are able to affect targets far removed from the signaling source. The first mechanism, communication of cells that are in direct contact, is developed to a state of high complexity in the nervous system. Here, a multitude of signals in the form of neurotransmitters chemically couple networks of neurons at specialized cell—cell contacts, the synapses.

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