Skip to search form Skip to main content. Despite rapid progress in understanding tumorigenesis, limited is the translation of discovery-based preventive research into clinical use. View PDF.
Skip to search form Skip to main content. The elucidation of molecular interdependencies, which lead to development of primary breast cancer, its progression, and its formation of metastases is the main focus for new strategies targetted at prevention and treatment. View on Springer.
Correspondence Address: Dr. E-mail: bruce. Aim: Present cancer hypotheses are almost all based on the concept that accumulation of specific driver gene mutations cause carcinogenesis.
Excess body weight is associated with the primary risk of 13 distinct cancers and is generally considered a poor prognostic indicator for patients diagnosed with a variety of malignancies. Obesity is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for breast cancer development. Growing evidence suggests that breast cancers that occur in obese women are more aggressive and less responsive to various treatments, and that women who are overweight or obese at the time of diagnosis are at higher risk of cancer recurrence and death compared with leaner women. There are also some indications that gain of weight after breast cancer diagnosis may also lead to poor outcomes.
Breast cancer is the most common and deadly type of cancer that affects women worldwide. In all the cases, a good theoretical basis is fundamental. Thus, this update review intend to be a primary source on Breast Cancer, paving and consolidating knowledge in the field of breast cancer and helping physicians in their daily difficult task to deal with this disease.
Breast cancer emerges by a multistep process which can be broadly equated to transformation of normal cells via the steps of hyperplasia, premalignant change and in situ carcinoma. The elucidation of molecular interdependencies, which lead to development of primary breast cancer, its progression, and its formation of metastases is the main focus for new strategies targetted at prevention and treatment. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis of breast cancer samples demonstrates that tumour development involves the accumulation of various genetic alterations including amplification of oncogenes and mutation or loss of tumour suppressor genes.
Cancer is caused by accumulated damage to genes. Such changes may be due to chance or to exposure to a cancer causing substance. The substances that cause cancer are called carcinogens.
In order to study the mechanisms responsible for cell fate decisions, cell and mouse systems are used where expression of oncogenes can be switched-on or -off by tetracycline-inducible systems. It is important to study whether mechanisms observed in cell culture are also relevant in vivo. This can be achieved in mouse systems or in human tumour tissue.
Electronic address: eiliv. The theory of breast cancer as a child deficiency disease is an inversion of the current paradigm, which considers full-term pregnancies to be a protective factor and uses nulliparous women as the reference group. Instead, the theory of breast cancer as a child deficiency disease says that women with the highest parity about 20, which is the limit of human fertility are those with the lowest risk and should be used as the reference group in risk estimations. This theory is explained biologically by converting parity from the simple value of number of children into an understanding of the long-lasting biological and immunological effects of pregnancy.